Queen Mary II of England~ A guest post by Samantha Arbisi Hanson

Queen Mary II of Great Britain

Queen Mary II of Great Britain

Samantha joins us today with a post on Mary Stuart, Queen of Great Britain. You can follow her on her Facebook page Today in Dead Royalty and on Twitter.

On April 30th, 1662 a girl is born to James Stuart, Duke of York and his wife Anne Hyde. She would be christened Mary and would resemble her Stuart relatives. She grew tall with dark curly hair and was intelligent and kind. At age three, she was joined by a sister Anne, and these two sisters would make history.

While Mary was still quite young, her parents converted to Roman Catholicism. But at the command of her uncle King Charles II, both Mary and Anne were raised in the Anglican faith. Tragedy struck for the girls in 1671 when their mother Anne died at age 34, most likely from cancer. Two years later, Mary would have a new stepmother when her father married the Catholic Italian princess Mary of Modena who was only four years Mary’s senior.

Mary’s own marriage came into play in 1677, when at the age fifteen she was betrothed and wed to her first cousin William, Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of the Netherlands. She cried when she was told she had to marry and cried during the wedding. However, she resigned herself to her situation, becoming devoted to William and earning the respect of the Dutch people.

Things began to change, though, when in 1685 King Charles II died and Mary’s father became King James VII of Scotland and II of Great Britain. Unless her father had a son with his young wife, Mary would be Queen after his death. King James grew to be unpopular due to his pro-Catholic policies and in 1688, a boy was born in England to the King and Queen. Rumors flew that it was not the child of the King. The story was a baby boy was brought into Queen Mary of Modena’s birthing chamber in a bed-warming pan. The nobles of the realm were aghast with the thought of another Catholic monarch. A group of nobles convened to secretly invite Mary’s husband William to invade from the Netherlands on behalf of the Protestant cause. William himself had a claim to the throne behind Mary and Anne as their cousin. Mary stayed behind while her husband landed in her homeland and her father fled for France. Parliament declared James had abandoned the throne and it was offered to William and Mary as co-rulers.

Joint portrait of Mary and William

Joint portrait of Mary and William

Under the joint rule of the couple, in late 1689, Parliament enacted a Bill of Rights which outlined some clear boundaries of royal power and the rights of the people. Mary usually deferred to William in matters of state, since she saw him as the ruler. But while William was gone on military campaigns, Mary stepped up to the plate proving herself to be an effective ruler and growing to be immensely popular with the people.

In the meantime, her relationship with her sister Anne had soured. They clashed over Anne’s friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. Mary did not approve of Churchill’s husband who was suspected of conspiring with the Jacobites to restore Mary and Anne’s father to the throne. The sisters would never speak again after April 1692 when Mary visited Anne after a difficult labor and the death of her child. Mary herself had suffered two miscarriages throughout her marriage and her continued childlessness was a source of deep sadness for her.

Sadly in 1694, tragedy struck when Mary contracted smallpox. She sent away any attendants of hers who had never previously had the disease. Her sister Anne offered to attend her in an attempt to repair the rift between them. Anne’s offer was refused and on December 28th, Mary died at age 32. William was crushed and she was profoundly mourned in London. The Jacobites saw her death as retribution for the overthrow of her father. When William died in 1702, Mary’s sister Anne became Queen Regent.

Regardless if you sympathize with Mary or side with her father, it’s hard to deny Mary’s charm and fascinating life. She was a remarkable woman from a unique family who had a front row seat throughout unprecedented change in European politics.

Further reading: “Sovereign Ladies” by Maureen Waller, “Royal Panoply” by Carolly Erickson, The Seventeenth Century Lady website

12 responses

  1. Pingback: Lucy Walter, Royal Mistress « The Freelance History Writer

  2. Pingback: Titus Oates « The Freelance History Writer

  3. Pingback: The Scrumptious Stuart Queens: Mary II | Today in Dead Royalty

  4. Pingback: History A'la Carte 7-3-14 - Random Bits of Fascination

  5. Pingback: Queen Anne of Great Britain ~ A Guest Post by Samantha Arbisi Hanson « The Freelance History Writer

  6. I think life was tough for a girl married of to a stranger. But, I didn’t know that it was managed by her uncle, Charles II, when he must have realized that William was a very strong supporter of the Protestant forces, and (from what I know) Charles was a sort of wishy washy Catholic, being financed secretly by the French. However. Mary seems to have taken her fate in her hands, and become the sort of Queen that was required in England, at a time of a basic parliamentary revolution. And, William wanted English money to support his continuing wars in Europe. It was a very difficult time for England, and Mary must have represented a much needed calm.

    Like

  7. Always wondered about Mary, and her husband. Some reports seemed to indicate that it was a relatively happy marriage, other reports seem suggest that he was very cold to her while she was alive. …. Royal and aristocratic marriages have fascinated me since I started discovering unexpectedly happy ones:-)

    Like

    • The marriage seems to have been horrible to start with, then very loving, then rocky (with miscarriages, ill health, then infidelity, etc). But their union was pretty darn solid. They had a deep connection and genuinely loved each other – that’s why they’re my favourite Stuart couple! 🙂 Yey, Samantha, for the post! 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Mimi Matthews

Mimi Matthews

Georgian Papers Programme

Uncovering the historical papers of the Georgian Royal Family

partylike1660.com/

Titillating tidbits from the court of the Sun King

The History Jar

English History from 1066

Fleeting Glimpse

.separated by time, not space.

Exploring London

A blog about London and its history...

From the Hands of Quacks

by Jaipreet Virdi-Dhesi

Explorers of the RSGS

The history, heritage and people of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society

Princess Charlotte of Wales

Don't treat it as history, just read it as a story.

%d bloggers like this: